Top 8 what is a tourmaline stone

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What Is Tourmaline Gemstone – GIA

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  • Summary: Articles about What Is Tourmaline Gemstone – GIA Tourmaline is a birthstone for October, along with opal. Tourmaline is also the gem of the eighth anniversary. 1554. Francisco Spinoza’s expedition discovers “ …

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    Tourmaline’s colors have many different causes. It’s generally agreed that traces of iron, and possibly titanium, induce green and blue colors. Manganese produces reds and pinks, and possibly yellows. Some pink and yellow tourmalines might owe their hues to color centers c…

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Tourmaline – International Colored Gemstone Association

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  • Summary: Articles about Tourmaline – International Colored Gemstone Association The name comes from the Singhalese words “tura mali,” which translates to “stone with mixed colors.” It is the gemstone of love and of friendship, and is said …

  • Match the search results: – Paraiba tourmaline, discovered in 1987 at a mine in the Brazilian state of Paraiba, has become the most prized of all tourmaline colors because of its striking neon color and its rarity. Paraiba is an elbaite tourmaline, with large amounts of the trace elements manganese and copper. These elements…

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What is tourmaline? How does Tourmaline Heal the Body?

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  • Summary: Articles about What is tourmaline? How does Tourmaline Heal the Body? Tourmaline is a gemstone that belongs to a complex family of borosilicate mixed with iron, magnesium or other various metals that depending upon the proportions …

  • Match the search results: Far infrared rays are invisible rays of energy. They are able to penetrate all layers of the human body, and reach the inner most regions of tissues, muscles and bone- down to the cellular level. Through this, for infrared rays and negative ions are also incredibly important in determining and regul…

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The Definitive Tourmaline Buying Guide – The Rare …

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  • Summary: Articles about The Definitive Tourmaline Buying Guide – The Rare … Tourmaline from primary sources can still be in their “crystal habit”. Which means that they are in their original shape they formed in nature. All gems have a …

  • Match the search results: Can Tourmaline be treated or enhanced to improve its
    quality? The answer is Yes, it can. The most routinely used treatment for
    Tourmaline is heating. This treatment is usually used when a tourmaline is too
    dark in tone and results in a lighter, more attractive color

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Tourmaline Meaning: Healing Properties & Everyday Uses

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  • Summary: Articles about Tourmaline Meaning: Healing Properties & Everyday Uses It is a mineral classed as crystalline boron silicate and has a vitreous luster. Tourmaline has an opaque transparency and is part of the hexagonal crystal …

  • Match the search results: One of the best ways of using Tourmaline crystals is to turn to the direct healing power of jewelry. Whether a Black Tourmaline Bracelet to serve as a cloak of protection or a Rainbow Tourmaline Bracelet to keep all your chakras open and energized, the best thing about Tourmaline jewelry is its abil…

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Black Tourmaline Meaning: Healing Properties & Uses …

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  • Summary: Articles about Black Tourmaline Meaning: Healing Properties & Uses … Black Tourmaline is part of the Tourmaline family. It is also known as Schorl and is a style of silicate crystal. It is commonly found in trigonal crystal …

  • Match the search results: For those stones that marry well with Black Tourmaline, you can look to Amethyst to balance out protection and instill an even deeper sense of calm. Hematite is another fiercely protective stone which is sure to make your arsenal against electromagnetic radiation even stronger. Clear Quartz can bala…

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Uses of Tourmaline in Feng Shui – The Spruce

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  • Summary: Articles about Uses of Tourmaline in Feng Shui – The Spruce Tourmaline is a revered stone that comes in a wide array of colors. It is a grounding gemstone that is popular for energetic protection and …

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    This type of tourmaline gets its name from its unusual coloring: a pink center surrounded by green. Similar to pink tourmaline, watermelon tourmaline is connected to the heart chakra. It’s especially helpful when it comes to relationships because it can be used to invite passion and love into one&#…

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What is Black Tourmaline? Meaning & Properties of The …

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  • Summary: Articles about What is Black Tourmaline? Meaning & Properties of The … Black tourmaline crystal has numerous properties and associations that make it a special gemstone. It’s generally pitch-black, making it all …

  • Match the search results: Black tourmaline also goes by the name of schorl tourmaline. The term tourmaline is said to be derived from the Sri Lankan term turmali. However, turmali was previously a word used to refer to another gemstone, yellow zircon.

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Multi-read content what is a tourmaline stone

tourmalines - color suite

Tourmalines: worldwide origin, play of colors (from 3 to 12 cts). Picture ©Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.


Tourmaline is a supergroup of minerals that includes three groups, numerous subgroups, and over thirty different species. With new discoveries, the list of tourmaline species continues to grow. All The sameTrianglecrystal structure (hexagonal) but different chemical formula.

Victorian writer John Ruskin’s secret from 1890 still applies to tourmalines today:

The chemistry of [tourmaline] is more like the prescription of a medieval doctor than the creation of a respectable mineral.

thebasic formulaTo be:


X, Y, Z, T, V and W can represent different elements, so there can be many substitutions and therefore variations. This chemical complexity can produce a range of fascinating colors in tourmalines, including multicolored patterns.

pink-and-yellow shield cut tourmaline - Nigeria

Custom shield cut tourmaline in a pink and gold color combination. 1.50 carats, 10.4 x 7.8 mm, Nigeria. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.

Additionally, tourmaline crystals are abundant throughout the world, often cuttable and sometimes large and well finished. These factors keep tourmaline prices generally low and popular with consumers.

green tourmaline ring with opal accents

A Celtic-inspired ring with a dark green (pear-shaped) tourmaline surrounded by whiteopalAccent sign. ©Custom made. Used with permission.

Tourmaline color can satisfy all fashion requirements. Withoutdivisionand only the lightfragility, these gemstones make great jewelry for everyday wear.

Tourmalines are also suitable forsculptureGuests and intaglios as well as all shapes and forms.

watermelon tourmalines - butterfly earrings

Watermelon tourmaline butterfly dangle earrings in 18k yellow gold.Photopolite ofliveauctioneers.comandLouis J. Dianni, LLC.

Identification features

All members of the tourmaline supergroup are considered tourmalines. The characteristics of some species are so similar that it is difficult to separate them. For gemological purposes, it suffices to identify them all as tourmaline.

Distinguishing tourmaline into specific species may requireadvanced gem test, likePlasma mass spectrometry combined with induction by laser cutting(LA-ICP-MS).

Tourmalines arePiezoelectricitylikeThermal. They respectively generate electricity when pressurized and heated. They also generate an electrical charge when theyrubbed.


Tourmalines come in all colors, from colorless to black. Regular crystalscolor zoningaccording to their length (bicolor, tricolor, unicolor, etc.) or concentric partitions (watermelon tourmaline).

bi-color tourmalines - Brazil

Two-tone tourmalines: Brazil (4.92, 23.90, 14.32). Picture ©Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

Tourmaline species

The majority of cut tourmaline gemstones are of the elbaite type. Other species you may find cut or in jewelry are dravite, liddicoatite, schorl, and uvite. You will rarely come across other gem-cut tourmaline species, but they do appear from time to time.

The following table analyzes the differences in optical and physical properties between the different species. (Note that all tourmalines haveoptical characteranddispersion. The hardness can vary from 7 to 7.5). The species most commonly found as gemstones are listed in bold italics.

Attribute variations of tourmaline species

Species SG oh and Birefringence
“Buergerite” (fluorine-buergerite) 3.29-3.32 1,735 1.655-1.670 0.065-0.080
Chromdravite 3.39-3.41 1,778 1,772 0.006
Dravite 3.10-3.90 1.627-1.675 1.604-1.643 0.016-0.032
Elbaite 2.84-3.10 1.619-1.655 1.603-1.634 0.013-0.024
Feruvite ~3.20 1.687 1.669 0.018
Foititis ~3.17 1.664 1.642 0.022
“Liddicoatite” (fluor-lidoatite) ~3.02 1.637 1.621 0.016
Magnesium-foititis 2.96? 1,650 1.624 0.026
Olenite ~3.01 1.654 1.635 0.019
Povondraite 3.18-3.33 1,820 1,734 0.057
Rossmanite ~3.00 1.645 1.624 0.021
Schorl 2.82-3.24 1.638-1.698 1.620-1.675 0.016-0.046
Tsilasite ~3.13 1.645-1.648 1.622-1.623 0.023-0.028
Uvite 3.01-3.09 1.632-1.660 1.612-1.639 0.017-0.021
Vanadiumdravite ~3.32 1,786 1,729 0.057

Description of the species


Although you can find specimens described as buergerite, the correct name for this tourmaline isfluorinated buergerite. The “W” position in its chemical formula is fluorine (F). (“Buergerite”, with oxyhydrogen (OH) in the “W” position, not found).

These rare dark brown to black crystals can be bronze in colormetallic lusterunder surface.

buergerite crystals - Mexico

Chocolate Brownbuergerite crystals on matrix. 5.3 x 4.3 x 1.7 cm, Mexquitic, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.


Also known aschrome-draviteWherechromian dravite, which is a chromium-rich (Cr) dravite. This tourmaline has a deep, deep blue color.

chromdravite - Tanzania

Chromdravite crystals on a calcite matrix. 2.7 x 2.0 x 1.9 cm, Merelani Hills, Lelatema Mountains, Manyara Region, Tanzania. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.


The colors of dravite can vary from yellow, brown, black and dark green to dark red, light green to emerald green and even colorless. It has many sources.

cushion-cut dravite - Kenya

Dravite Cut Cushion, 2.25 carats, Kenya. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.


The most common type of tourmaline, elbaite, is available in a variety of colors from many sources.

elbaite crystals - Afghanistan

Elbaite crystals of different colors, including two colors. 1.4 x 0.4 x 0.4cm, 2.5 x 0.5 x 0.5cm, 2.5 x 0.2 x 0.1cm, 1.6 x 0.4 x 0.4 cm. Konar Province, Afghanistan. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.


A rare dark brown to black iron member of the uvite subgroup.


Bluish to dark indigo black tourmaline with purple undertones.

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Foitite crystal from Mount Mica, Maine. The backlight accentuates its purple hue. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.


Although the name refers to tourmalines with complex and multicolored zoning, these stones can belong to two species. For many years, scientists believed that liddicoatite was a type of elbait.1977, it has been identified as a calcium analog of elbait (with Ca at the “X” position). Years later liddicoatite was redefined.Fluor-lidoatiteF predominates (“W” site), whilelidoatitisOH predominates (“W” position). Investigate to determine ifDominant cover OHexistence in nature continues. Currently it is not an approved species name. However, the term “liddicoatite” is still commonly used to refer to rocks that are actually fluorspar liddicoatite.

liddicoatite - Madagascar

Thisliddicoatite tileshows green, yellow, blue-gray and pink regions, with a burgundy center and triangular core. 15.96 carats, 30.1 x 25.3 x 2 mm, Alakamisy Itenina, Fianarantosa, Madagascar. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.


rossmanite - Canada

Dark burgundy cabochon Rossmanite, 11.91 cts, 20.9 x 12.1 mm, Tanco Mine, Bernic Lake, Manitoba, Canada. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.

Magnesium predominates (Mg in the “Y” position) is greenish brown to bluish gray in color.


Tourmaline is available in colors ranging from blue to pale shades of pink, blue, or green, as well as colorless.


In 1997, researchers have identified this rare tourmaline, formerly known asferridravite, not really iron (Fe3) analogues of dravite. It is almost opaque, dark brown, dark brown or black in color.


A rare pink to tan tourmaline.


Black Schorl has been used in jewelry since ancient times. InVictorian, schorl often appears in mourning jewelry. In modern times, this popular tourmaline is rarely cut into a gemstone. Schorl also appears in shades of brown, blue or blue.

schorl intaglio ring - Roman 3rd Century CE

The golden ring represents the mythical Daedalus engraved on the schorl stone. Rome, 3rd century CE.Photopolite ofliveauctioneers.comandTimeLine Auctions Ltd.


Tsilasitewas first proposed as the name for a hypothetical manganese (Mn)-dominant tourmaline in 1929.In the mid 1980s, the discovery of high-Mn yellow tourmalines in Zambia has led some researchers to confirm that they are natural tsilaisites.Sellers have even started using this name, although it is not approved and the stones do not qualify for a new species.In 2006, researchers have identified these stones as only Mn-rich quintessence and have discredited the name.Tested in 2011, more than 200 candidate rocks worldwide do not have the Mn content (>10.71 wt% MnO) required for classification as tsilaisites.

However,in 2012, the yellow tourmalines discovered in Elba, Italy, were found to be the elusive Mn-dominant species (with Mn in the “Y” position). Thus, the tsilaisite species was finally officially approved.

yellow tourmaline - Madagascar

Mn-rich yellow tourmalines from around the world, like this one7.07 carats. oval cut gemstoneof Madagascar, were called tsilaisites. However, they lack the necessary chemical makeup to be considered examples of this distinct species. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.


Another modified and re-approved species (in 2020), uvites form a subgroup of tourmaline, which includes appropriate uvite, fluor-uvite, and feruvite. Most uvite specimens are actually fluor-uvite, the common F-dominant component (with F in the “W” position). 

Uvites come in several colors: black, pale green to dark green, brown, red, and sometimes other colors, including colorless.


A vanadium-containing dravite sheet varies in color from dark green to black.

vanadiumdravite - Myanmar

Chromium-rich vanadium dravite, 2.7 x 2.1 x 1.4 cm, Pyant Gyi Mine, Mogok City, Mandalay, Myanmar. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.

Description and trade name

There are many trade names for tourmalines, depending on their color and shape. Although their characteristics may overlap with those of specific species, the following are not species names. For example,rubelliteusually elite butpossibly also liddicoatite and olenites. Paraíba tourmalines have long been considered reserved for the elite, untilcopper capwith the paraíba color already defined in 2017.

Although an official species, the name dravite is sometimes applied to yellow and brown tourmalines, even though they do not belong to this species.


Colorless tourmaline.

achroite tourmaline - Madagascar

1.43 ct achroite, Madagascar.Photopolite ofliveauctioneers.comandJasper52.

Canary Tourmalines

Bright yellow tourmalines.

canary tourmalines - Zambia

Canary Tourmalines, pair fit, radiant cut square, Zambia. Thermal treatment. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.

cat's eye tourmaline - Brazil

Cat’s Eye Tourmaline: Brazil (20.85). Picture ©Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

cat eyes

Shimmeringmulti-colored tourmalines.

Chrome Tourmalines

Colored by chromium or vanadium, these stones have a dark green color. Green tourmalines without chrome or vanadium are called verdelites. 

Tourmalines change color

Extremely rare tourmalines that show the differencechange color, from daylight to incandescent light

Some tourmalines can show aThe Usambara Effect, a pattern of color change that depends in part on the length of the light’s path through the rock.

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Tourmaline 4.57 ct color change, dark green to reddish brown, mixed marquise cut, East Africa. © Gemstone dealer. Used with permission.


Tourmalines in blue. Stones with a deep neon green color created by copper are known as paraíba tourmaline.

indicolite - Brazil

9.84 ct, emerald cut indicolite, Brazil. The whole body is pure, dark green with indigo tips. Picture ©Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

Paraiba Tourmalines

Tourmalines are deep neon green, with the color of bronze. Originally discovered and named after the Brazilian state of Paraíba, specimens have also been found inNigeria and Mozambique. The gem community widely accepts the definition ofparaiba tourmalinesdepending on color and copper content. However, you may find that some dealers reserve the term for the Brazilian material, referring to the African material as “paraíba variety” or simply Cuprian blue tourmaline.

Determining the origin of paraíba tourmalines requires LA-ICP-MS assays toquantitative chemical analysis.

paraíba tourmaline - Brazil

Paraíba tourmaline, oval modified brilliant cut, 16.33 cts, 18.02 x 14.89 x 8.04 mm, Brazil.Photopolite ofliveauctioneers.comandKiss auctions.

Blue-colored tourmalines that are not produced by copper are called indicolites.


Tourmalines exist in several colors.


The term rubellite generally refers to tourmaline withsaturationdark pink to red and medium to darkless, from raspberry toRuby-like red. These stones are usually burgundy, yellowish or brownish in color.


Rubbellites: Pala, California (15), Brazil (22, 18), Pala (26), Africa (11) // Pala (4), Brazil (5), Africa (8), Brazil (4, 4). Picture ©Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

Trapiche Tourmalines

When cutting perpendicular to the c axis,traptourmalines show impurities formed from organic matter between outgrowths of its crystal structure, like spokes radiating from the center of a wheel. Although these patterns may look like stars, they are notstar stone. 


Green tourmalines. Dark green colored stones produced by chrome or vanadium are considered chrome tourmaline.


Round verdelite of 3.04 ct.Photopolite ofliveauctioneers.comandJasper52.

Watermelon Tourmalines

Tourmalines have a pink or red “core” or center and a green “shell” or outline. Some specimens have a colorless ring between these two areas. When cut, these stones look like slices of watermelon.

Watermelon Tourmalines - Brazil

Watermelon Tourmalines, Brazil (large slices, about 1″ in diameter. Photo ©Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

The rascals

Although tourmalines are popular gemstones, other gemstone names may be more distinct and lead to higher prices. Therefore, some unscrupulous vendors may usean evocative but misleading combination of gemstone namessell tourmalines more easily. For example, you might come across green tourmalines sold under the name “Brazilemerald”Or” Ceyloneseperidots”And the blue tourmalines are sold as “Brazil”Jade. ”

These terms are not accepted trade names for tourmalines. Of course, tourmalines, emeralds, peridots and sapphires are all separate gemstone species. Emeralds and sapphires are also slightly more expensive than most tourmalines. To complicate matters further, emeralds are actually found in Brazil and peridots in Sri Lanka. Ask suppliers to clarify the name and origin of any tourmalines they sell, or ask for gemological lab analysis, especially for high-value gemstones.


absorption ofo rayin tourmaline is strong enough to polarize light. Sometimes this ray is completely absorbed and the tourmaline canappear thurify, as it shows only one absorption edge on the refractometer.

Dark green and brown tourmalines show particularly strongmultiplicity theory, while pale colors have low dichroism. Light traveling along a prismatic crystal always gives a darker color than a direction perpendicular to that direction.

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This rectangular cut dichroic tourmaline has a forest green appearance from the front but is olive green on the sides. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.

Pleochroic colors typical of tourmaline species
To taste oh and
Fluor-Buergerite yellow brown very pale yellow
Dravite yellow Without color
yellow orange pale yellow
Dark green green olive
bluish green Green yellow
dark to medium brown slightly yellow to light brown
Elbaite medium pink light pink or colorless
green yellow to olive green
blue light green to purple
blue colorless to pink to purple
Povondraite dark brown to dark olive green light olive green to light brown
Fluor-lidoatite Ginseng brown light brown
Schorl blue to green yellow, fawn, light purple or colorless
blue, brown A yellow rose
Ginseng brown yellow, light brown or greenish yellow
Uvite (like dravite)
Chromdravite Dark green green gold
Tsilasite pale green gold very pale greenish yellow

Consists of

Most tourmalines are class IIkind clear, “Frequently included.” Green tourmalines are Class I, “Usually clear to the eye”, while red and watermelon tourmalines are Class III, “Almost always included”.


This 4.82 ct pink tourmaline from the Stewart Lithia mine in California is visible. ©Everything that shines. Used with permission.

All tourmalines can containconsists ofhollow tubes, long or irregular fibrous cavities, sometimes mixed with liquid or gas, sometimesconsists of two phases, usually in the form of a grid. These tubes usually run parallel to the length of the crystal and when densely packed can produce a shimmering effect in the cabochon.

Red tourmalines may contain gas-filled fissures as well as flat films that reflect light and are black.

Tourmalines may contain minerals of horny crystals, mica,apatite, andzircon.

tourmaline with schiller effect - Brazil

The copper inclusions in this rectangular step-cut tourmaline create athe Schiller effect. 4.48 cts, 19 x 6.3 mm, Brazil. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.

What is Tourmaline Quartz?

Some are obviousQuartzThe stone may contain needle-shaped black tourmaline crystals. Is calledtourmalized quartz, these pieces can make attractive display crystals as well as attractive gemstones for jewelry.

tourmalinated quartz pair by Tom Munsteiner

Tourmaline quartz pair, custom cut byTom Munsteiner. 9.89 ct, 9mm, Brazil. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.


Scientists have produced synthetic tourmaline for research purposes. For example, before tsilaisite was discovered in nature, researchers were already producing it in the laboratory.(1984)as well as other Mn-rich tourmalines(2003).

However, is there lab-made tourmaline on the market for use as a gem or jewelry?

In 1993, Russian scientists have synthesized tourmalines using ahydrothermallyprocedure. In this case, the synthetic tourmaline was grown on natural tourmaline bead crystals. Curiously, in 2008, the International School of Gemmology (ISG) – not the International Gemological Society (IGS) – concluded that some of the unusual tourmalines they obtained were most likely synthetics produced similar to those of the experience of 1993. As news of this spreading claims, there were also rumors that these synthetics had made their way into the gemstone market.

Bear Williams of Stone Group Labs denied this rumor.In his 2009 article, he writes that the 1993 experiment produced only small amounts of synthetic tourmaline at great expense. Furthermore, he noted that the ISG had been mistaken in comparingRaman spectroscopyof his specimens for those examined in the 1993 study. (In a reply, ISG reports that it has re-evaluated its tourmaline samples and determined that it is indeed natural liddicoatite, not synthetic).

Synthetic tourmaline is very expensive and difficult to create. Moreover, there is no economic incentive to synthesize this material for commercial purposes. Natural tourmalines are inexpensive but gemstone quality is readily available. Although you can find so-called “synthetic tourmaline” for sale online, careful reading will find that the term is often used synonymously with “fake” or”Simulation.”If the simulator is a lab-made material, suppliers may claim that the “tourmaline” itself is lab-generated. In fact, it is not a tourmaline at all.

To improve

On the other hand, tourmalines can get manyto improve. These can easily improve the look and color of poor quality stone and change its natural color to something more attractive (and valuable).

  • Heating
  • : revives blue and green stones, common, stable, undetectable. May produce other rare, stable and undetectable colors.
  • Irradiation
  • : Produces red, dark pink, yellow, orange and common colors. May fade on heating or prolonged exposure to strong, undetectable light.
  • Acid treatment: whitening dark impurities, mainly used on cat eyes, infrequent, stable, undetectable.
  • Plastic or Epoxy Coated: Seals hollow tubes to keep dirt out, infrequent, stable. Detectable with
  • hot spot test
  • and
  • exaggeration
  • .
  • Dye
  • and coating: generally unstable.

irradiated tourmalines

Sterling silver earrings with irradiated tourmalines (green, pink and orange).Photopolite ofliveauctioneers.comand3 Kings Auction.


The following sources are some of the main manufacturers of tourmalines, and the varieties listed are some of the most notable of these sources. Many listed sources also produce many other types of tourmaline. Many other unlisted sources also produce tourmaline.


InNuristan, the wondrous elbaite gem in shades of blue, pink, green and even emerald green.

greenish blue tourmaline - Afghanistan

Blue-green tourmaline, square cushion with checkerboard top, 2.09 ct, 7.5 mm, Afghanistan. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.


InCochabamba, povondraite.


InMinas Geraisand other states, usually elbait, of various colors and sometimes large crystals; Also available in two colors, cat eye, watermelon tourmaline. Of particular note are the giant red cranberry crystals ofJonas Lima mineand the marvelous dark red material ofOuro Fino.

bi-color tourmaline - Brazil

Two-tone tourmaline, Brazil (4.90). Picture ©Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.

Czech Republic

InStrazek Moldanubicum, rosmanite.


InCashmere, green elbaite crystals. RI 1.643, 1.622; SG=3.05, birefringence=0.021.


InHonshu, magnesium-foititis, rare.


Good, deep red and other colors. Red is dravite; (also has a yellow tint). The following table describes their properties.

and oh Birefringence SG Color
1.623 1.654 0.031 3.07 Red
1.626 1.657 0.031 3.08 Red
1.619 1.642 0.022 3.04 yellow


Canary Tourmalines.


Liddicoatite (formerly considered elbait) in a wide variety of colors and shades; crystals are often concentrically partitioned with many colored areas, triangular outlines; many very large crystals. Also, good rubellite.

liddicoatite slices - Madagascar

Slices of liddicoatite, Camp Robin, Fianarantsoa, ​​Madagascar. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.


Buergerite appears in the aldehyde rhyme atSan Luis Potosi, rare.


Paraíba Tourmalines (Cuprian). InUpper Ligonha, pale elbaite with different shades; two colors.

pink tourmaline - Mozambique

Brilliant round cut pink tourmaline, 4.44 cts, ground from material mined in Mozambique in 1972. Photo ©Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.


themogokThe region produces red tourmalines, there is also pink elbait and brown uvites.


  • Usakos
  • : fine elbait of dark green color (chrome tourmaline).
  • Klein Spitzkopje, Otavi:
  • tourmaline comes in many shades of green and other colors (elbaite).

oval-cut tourmaline - Namibia

Light green tourmaline, oval cut. 5.98 cts, 12.4 x 10.2 mm, Namibia. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.

New Zealand

Feruvite has been found inCuvier Island, rare.


Paraíba (cuprian) and other tourmalines.

hot pink tourmaline - Nigeria

5.46 ct hot pink tourmaline, Nigeria. Cut “RS Brilliant” by Loren Brown. ©RSA Gems. Used with permission.


  • Mursinka, Urals,
  • also to
  • Nerchinsk:
  • blue, red and purple crystals in decomposed granite.
  • Center of Karelia:
  • chromdravite (dark green).
  • Kola Peninsula:
  • olenite, rare.

siberite crystal - Russia

“Siberites”,an opaque dark red tourmaline. 1.1 x 1.0 x 0.7 cm, Murzinka mine, Sarapulka district, Ekaterinburgskaya’ oblast, Middle Urals, Ural region, Russia. © Rob Lavinsky, Used with permission.


InGlenbuchat, Aberdeenshire, elbaite color zoning up to several centimeters, suitable for cutting.

Sri Lanka

Yellow and brown crystals. This is an ancient source of gemstone tourmaline, known today as uvite rather than dravite.


Elbaite contains Cr and V, creating rich shades of green.

chrome tourmaline - Tanzania

Rectangular step cut chrome tourmaline, 3.02 ct, 10.6 x 6.5 mm, Tanzania. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.

United States

  • California
  • : abundant elbaite at
  • Palace
  • and other localities, both in fine crystals and precious stones. The elbaite pink from here is a unique pastel shade. In addition, bluish-black foititis is uncommon.

cushion-cut pink tourmaline - California

Custom cushion cut pink tourmaline, 3.60 ct, 12.4 x 7.3mm, Pala County, San Diego Co., CA. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.

  • Connecticut
  • : in
  • Haddam
  • , elbait in the form of small but fine crystals, color partitioning.
  • Maine
  • : in
  • Newry
  • , large reserves of fine elbaite, with exquisite gem material in shades of green, blue-green, blue, and pink to red.

granny smith tourmalines - Maine

Yellow-green tourmalines (“Granny Smith”), 3.26 and 5.59 cts, Newry, Maine. ©Everything that shines. Used with permission.

  • new shirt
  • and
  • new York
  • : in
  • franklin
  • and
  • Hamburg, New Jersey
  • , and to
  • Governor
  • and
  • DeKaIb, New York
  • , uvite crystals, some have potential gems. This material has always been considered dravite.


InChipata, dark red crystals similar to dravite from Kenya. RI 1.624-1.654; birefringence = 0.030; OS = 3.03-3.07 (mean 3.05). Also, the yellow jade material has up to 9.2 weight. %MnO, very rare. Also, tourmaline trap.

elbaite - hexact cut

Elbaite with pale pink and yellow or green colors depending on the viewing angle. 5.49 cts, 10.2 x 10.2 x 8.5 mm, Zambia. “Hexact” was cut by Loren Brown. ©RSA Gems. Used with permission.


insideSomabula Forestregion, good elbaite.

Other Notable Sources of Tourmaline

  • China; Democratic Republic of Congo; Italy; Nepal; Pakistan; Tajikistan; Vietnam.

bi-color tourmaline - Democratic Republic of the Congo

Green/pink tourmaline features a two-tone radiant light green cut. 4.57 cts, 9 x 8.2 mm, Democratic Republic of Congo. ©Gem Merchant. Used with permission.

stone size

Tourmalines weighing hundreds of carats have been cut in many different localities. Brazil and Mozambique produce some of the largest stones, but Maine and California also produced very large crystals. Most major museums have fine collections of tourmalines and exhibit very large gemstones. (A representative tourmaline color collection should include more than 100 stones.)

  • Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC):
  • 246 (pink, ground egg, CA); 116.2, 100 (pink, CA); 172.7, 124.8 (champagne, Mozambique); 122.9 (blue, Mozambique); 117, 110 (green, Brazil); 110.8 (pink, Russian); 75 (rose red. Brazil); 62.4 (pink, Brazil); 18.4 (pink, Maine); 103.8 (Rose, Mozambique); 60 (blue-green, Brazil); 41.6 (brown, Sri Lanka); 23.5 (light brown, Brazil); 17.9 (blue, South Africa); 17.7 (yellow-green, Elba, Italy).
  • Private collection:
  • 258.08 (blue cat’s eye); 256 (green, Maine, huge for local).


Raw tourmaline canchallenge even experienced gem cutters. Multi-colored gemstones are generally weak where the colors meet, but all color varieties can have areas of stress. However, once cut and set for jewelry, tourmalines are very resistant stones.

gem rough tri-color tourmalines - Nigeria

Tricolor raw tourmaline from Nigeria. ©Dan Stair Custom Gems. Used with permission.

TourmalinesMohs hardnessbetween 7 and 7.5 means these gemstones are resistant to scratches from most everyday hazards, including household dust. This is fortunate because due to the conductivity of tourmaline, these gems will attract more dust than non-conductive stones. So you may need to clean them often

Since most tourmalines are rich in impurities, avoid cleaning them withsupersonicWheresteam equipment. Vibration and heat can cause fluids in the liquid to expand, breaking up the rock. Instead, use a soft brush, mild detergent, and lukewarm water.

Consult usGemstone Jewelry Care Tipsfor more recommendations.

tourmaline slice - gold ring

Hand forged 14k yellow gold ring with tourmaline pavé.Photopolite ofliveauctioneers.comandNest egg auction.

Popular questions about what is a tourmaline stone

what is a tourmaline stone?

Tourmaline is a complex silicate that contains boron. It displays a greater range of colors than any other gemstone. In fact, it comes in every color of the spectrum. Each different colored stone has a different name. Pink tourmaline is also known as “rubellite,” which is the Latin word for red.

Is tourmaline an expensive gem?

Prices. The prices of tourmaline vary tremendously, depending on the variety and quality. Most expensive are the Paraíba tourmalines, which may reach tens of thousands of dollars per carat. Chrome tourmalines, rubellites and fine indicolites and bi-colors may sell for as much as $1000/ct. or more.

What is so special about tourmaline?

Tourmaline helps to create a shield around a person or room to prevent negative or unwelcome energies from entering. It is also grounding and helpful to balancing all of the chakras. The stone can even dissolve challenging energy and negative thought patterns, transmuting them into more beneficial energy and beliefs.

Is tourmaline a good stone?

At their best, green tourmalines are transparent, brilliant, and clean, with attractive bluish green hues. Most green tourmalines are strongly pleochroic. Stones that show attractive colors in both directions—such as bright green in one and blue in another—are the most valuable.

What is a tourmaline worth?

Prices of tourmalines are generally under $500 per carat but in the case of Paraiba can reach $50000 per carat.

How can you tell if tourmaline is real?

If you are procuring an uncut specimen, you can check its authenticity by scratching it against the glass. If it leaves a scratch on the glass, it is a real Tourmaline. Fakes sold as Tourmaline are typically made of glass or plastic and will not be able to scratch themselves.

Which tourmaline color is best?

Bright, pure tones of red, blue and green are generally the most valued, but the electric vivid green to blue shades of copper-bearing tourmaline are so exceptional that they are in a class by themselves.

What chakra is tourmaline?

As it’s associated with the root chakra, black tourmaline is key in providing balance, security and grounding in your life.

Is pink tourmaline a protection stone?

The Spruce explains that all tourmaline crystals are useful in balancing “the feminine and masculine within ourselves,” as well as other opposing forces, and is a “grounding gemstone” for protection against negativity.

What healing powers does tourmaline have?

Healing with Tourmaline

Tourmaline attracts inspiration, compassion, tolerance and prosperity. It balances the right-left sides of the brain. Helps treat paranoia, overcomes dyslexia and improves hand-eye coordination. Tourmaline releases tension, making it helpful for spinal adjustments.

Is tourmaline more expensive than emerald?

Emerald is, carat-for-carat, much more expensive than tourmaline when both are of the same grade. And the truth is that lower grade tourmaline is most often sold as specimens to collectors, while even opaque emerald is usually cut to increase its value.

What should I look for when buying tourmaline?

Whatever the color of the Tourmaline, you want to look for a nice medium tone, not too dark, not too light. This image shows how tone levels range from too light on the left through to too dark on the right. This is the most important of the 3 components when judging quality of color in Tourmaline.

Is tourmaline more expensive than sapphire?

The cost of these gemstones varies. A multi-carat Paraiba tourmaline can cost up to $10,000. The greater the color vividness, the most a gemstone of this type fetches. You could pay up to $11,000 for a sapphire per carat, but most of these gems cost less than that.

What is the rarest color of tourmaline?

The rarest and most expensive tourmaline is the paraiba variety — a neon-like blue or green that is colored by traces of copper.

What rock is tourmaline found in?

granite pegmatites
Tourmaline is typically a mineral of granite pegmatites, pneumatolytic veins, and some granites; it is also commonly found in metamorphic rocks, as a product of boron metasomatism, or as a result of recrystallisation of dertrital grains from the original sediment.

Video tutorials about what is a tourmaline stone

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What is Tourmaline? Where is it mined? And just what is ferromagnetism? Find out in our look at this fascinating and most colourful gemstone. Please leave any comments below and hit subscribe for more episodes and information.


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Tourmaline carries the distinction of being the gemstone with the most color varieties in the gem kingdom. It exists in almost every color in the color wheel.

The name Tourmaline actually comes from a Sinhalese word “thoramalli”, meaning mixed colored stones. An ancient Egyptian legend states that this wide variety of hues comes because of its travels along a rainbow where it captured its many colors. Gemological speaking however, the wide variety of colors is caused by the presence of trace elements of other minerals within the Tourmaline crystals.

Tourmaline is the birthstone for October and comes from many parts of the world. At The Rare Gem Stone Company we concentrate on African Tourmaline from The DRC and Tanzania.

These sources produce some of the finest Tourmaline in the world. From rare deep reds, that are known as Rubellites, to beautiful deep greens, known as Chrome Tourmaline.

Chrome Tourmaline is colored by vanadium trace elements, which make them a more intense green than the other green Tourmaline. There are some stunning Bi-Color Tourmaline, where two colors are captured by the cutting process.

These African deposits are also very well known for the unusual and very beautiful mixed colors. Notably the pinkish orange Tourmaline, that display both pink and orange simultaneously yielding a gorgeous peach hue.

Another variety unique to Africa is the stunning Savannah Tourmaline, named after the endless oranges and yellows of the African Savannah.

Fine Tourmaline, particularly in the larger sizes are rare nowadays. When judging a fine Tourmaline, look for good cuts that display the color well, high clarities and vivid hues.

The primary value factor, as with all colored gemstones is color. Clarity plays a secondary role unlike with Diamonds where its central. With Tourmaline, fine stones should be at the

very least, “eye clean” if not flawless.

The exception is Pink Tourmaline and Rubellite which are GIA Type 2 stones. These generally contain eye visible inclusions but unless their size or number are distracting, they do not affect the value of the gem, especially if they have good color.

In recent years Tourmaline have featured strongly on The Red Carpet as successive Oscars. With celebrities like Gwyneth Paltrow, Christina Aquilera and Scarlett Johansson sporting exquisite Tourmaline jewelry.

Tourmalines are beautiful and a versatile gemstones and we offer some of the very best. #theraregemstonecompany

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This video discusses the gemstone tourmaline and its uses in jewelry-making

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