Below is the best information and knowledge about what is a obd2 scanner compiled and compiled by the hkfindall.com team, along with other related topics such as:: what type of obd is my car?, how to use obd scanner, bluetooth obd2 scanner, what obd scanner do i need, what is obd, obd1 scanner, what to look for in a obd2 scanner, are obd scanners worth it.
Image for keyword: what is a obd2 scanner
The most popular articles about what is a obd2 scanner
What is an OBD Reader? – Here you will find the answer – Carly
Evaluate 4 ⭐ (28691 Ratings)
Top rated: 4 ⭐
Lowest rating: 2 ⭐
Summary: Articles about What is an OBD Reader? – Here you will find the answer – Carly OBD stands for onboard diagnostics. An OBD reader (also called a diagnostic scanner or scan tool) is a vehicle diagnostic device that can be used to read the …
Match the search results: Finally, one last point is to consider the warranty that is included in your purchase. It is very common for most OBD2 scanners to include a short 1 to 3-year warranty. However, OBD2 scanners are mean to last longer than that, so you should ensure to get a lifetime warranty.
3 Things You Need to Know Before Buying an OBD-II Scan Tool
Evaluate 3 ⭐ (12955 Ratings)
Top rated: 3 ⭐
Lowest rating: 1 ⭐
Summary: Articles about 3 Things You Need to Know Before Buying an OBD-II Scan Tool Long story short, an OBD-II scanner can provide insight into your vehicle’s computer, such as the engine, transmission and other vital systems.
Match the search results: The ThinkScan 660 allows you to diagnose problems in the vehicle’s engine, ABS, SRS systems. It also supports OBD2 functions such as read/clear codes, EVAP test, I/M readiness, etc.
Summary: Articles about The best OBD-II scanners in 2022 | Tom’s Guide The best OBD-II scanners you can buy today · 1. Innova 6100P · 2. Topdon ArtiDiag500 · 3. BlueDriver Pro Scan Tool · 4. Bosch OBD 1300 · 5. Foxwell …
Match the search results: To test the best OBD2 scanners, I used my 2014 Audi A4 Allroad vehicle while it was in the garage or on the road over a period of several weeks. After connecting each scanner to my car’s OBD-II port, I made sure they could report the car’s vehicle identification number (VIN).
What is an OBD2 Scanner that Can Clear Codes? | GOFAR
Evaluate 4 ⭐ (21295 Ratings)
Top rated: 4 ⭐
Lowest rating: 2 ⭐
Summary: Articles about What is an OBD2 Scanner that Can Clear Codes? | GOFAR What is an OBD2 Scanner that Can Clear Codes? … Onboard Diagnostics II (OBD2) is a diagnostic system that is included in every vehicle made after 1996. It is …
Match the search results: Surprisingly enough, an OBD2 scanner is quite a nifty tool. The OBD2 scanner can be used to troubleshoot automotive service codes, as well as to clear the codes.
What Is an OBD2 (Onboard Diagnostics) Scanner2? – GOFAR
Evaluate 4 ⭐ (21722 Ratings)
Top rated: 4 ⭐
Lowest rating: 2 ⭐
Summary: Articles about What Is an OBD2 (Onboard Diagnostics) Scanner2? – GOFAR Auto technicians and owners use an OBD-II scanner device to understand the data the system gathers. It can provide data about your car’s air temperature, …
Match the search results: But not all OBD2 scanners are created equal. Read on for an in-depth analysis of this handy technology and what it can do for your vehicle and your wallet.
How to use an OBD2 scanner for your business | MileIQ
Evaluate 4 ⭐ (33973 Ratings)
Top rated: 4 ⭐
Lowest rating: 2 ⭐
Summary: Articles about How to use an OBD2 scanner for your business | MileIQ An OBD2 scanner allows you or your mechanic to access vehicle data. The device is often small enough to fit in your hand. Once connected to your …
Match the search results: When you start looking for an OBD2 scanner, consider how you’ll use it. Purchase a simple OBD2 scanner if you plan on using it to manage your “Check Engine” light. Buy an advanced OBD2 scanner if you plan on using it to measure car depreciation.
Summary: Articles about Best OBD2 scanners for 2022 – Roadshow – CNET Yet what separates the CarScan Pro diagnostic scanner from most OBD2 scan tools is bidirectional control — a feature sometimes called active …
Match the search results: The second type is a Bluetooth OBD2 scanner, known in the trade as a Bluetooth dongle. This type is usually a fairly small, plastic device that plugs into the OBD2 port and then connects to a smartphone or tablet via Bluetooth. Its job is to wirelessly transmit data from the vehicle’s OBD2 system to…
Summary: Articles about On-board diagnostics – Wikipedia On-board diagnostics (OBD) is an automotive term referring to a vehicle’s self-diagnostic and reporting capability. OBD systems give the vehicle owner or …
Match the search results: To use OBD2 software, one needs to have a Bluetooth or WIFI OBD2 adapter plugged in the OBD2 port to enable the vehicle to connect with the computer where the software is installed.
Summary: Articles about Best OBD2 Scanners For 2022 – Forbes Wheels OBD2 scanners allow vehicle owners to tap into their on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems directly to troubleshoot malfunctions and other …
Match the search results: “OBD” stands for “On Board automotive Diagnostics,” and OBD-II (oft abbreviated to OBD2) is the second generation of this technology. A vehicle’s computers monitor the data from multiple components, keep track of what they’re doing and if something’s wrong. When a fault does occur, it’s stored in th…
Find out how to unlock your car’s secret with an OBD2 reader.
We are all afraid when we seeCheck engine lightson the control panel lights up. It means that something is wrong with the car. It doesn’t tell us exactly what, it’s just that we’ll have some work to do to diagnose and fix it. This is especially troublesome in states with automatic controls, as your car may not pass and be illegal to drive until you fix the problem.
The OBD2 scanner can give you more information about the cause of your check lights. It is also a useful diagnostic tool to monitor your engine performance in real time. You can even customize your car’s settings, features, and performance with the right hardware and software.
In this guide we will explain what OBD2 is, what is a scanner, how it works and how to use OBD2. We’ll also talk about what you should look for when choosing the scanner that’s right for you, whether an OBD2 scanner can really fix your car, and which scanner is right for you.
Find out how to unlock your car’s secret with an OBD2 reader.
What is OBD2? What is an OBD2 scanner? Car Code Reader vs OBD2 Scanner Tool Which is the best OBD2 to iPhone OBD2 scanner?
What is OBD2?
OBD meansOn-board diagnostics. This is a system that monitors the performance of your car’s engine and exhaust system, records data, and reports any problems detected by the system.
OBD2 is the second version of this system for cars and trucks. Since 1996 for gasoline vehicles and 2008 for diesel, this is a standard system that allows you to plug the scanner into any make or model of car to access diagnostic information. This will work for any car from a Kia Rio to a Lamborghini Murcielago.
When the computer that controls the engine detects a problem, it recordsDiagnostic trouble code, also known as DTC, into its memory. If the problem is serious enough, it will turn onCheck engine lightson your dashboard to let you know there is a problem. At this point, it’s time to plug in the OBD2 scanner and investigate the problem.
Back when OBD2 first came out, it was a deal breaker for DIYers. When you get the check engine light, then you have to take your car to the shop to find out what it means, because dealerships and shops are the only ones who can read these codes with the device and suffer their costly diagnosis. However, the market saw a need and was quickly filled with affordable OBD2 readers for home lovers. Now anyone can read the trouble code,clear check engine lightand carry onmaintain your carwe.
What is an OBD2 scanner?
The device you plug into your car’s OBD2 port to readtrouble codeandLive Datacommonly referred to as scanner. They come in many forms, from a small box just larger than an OBD2 port, to a large device connected to the port by wire.
Inplaces to check your car’s exhaust system, the computer that plugs into your car, communicates with your state’s auto registry database, and prints your new check tag is also a type of OBD2 scanner.
Car Code Reader vs OBD2 Scan Tool
Some people distinguish between an OBD2 “code reader” and a “scan engine”. In this case, the code reader is a simple plug-in device that displays trouble code information, lets you reset the check light, and not much else. This is the type of device some auto parts stores will plug in and use to read your code for free.
The scan engine provides better access to vehicle diagnostic, system and performance data. Originally designed for professional mechanics, many mainstream OBD2 scanners, such asFIXED, also belongs to this category. These tools provide additional functionality such as the abilitylive data monitoring.FIXD Premiumalso provides repair cost estimates, maintenance and tracking schedules, and more.
There are many levels of scan engines available, from FIXD, which is affordable and easy to use for everyone, to professional scan tools which are much more powerful and much more expensive. While code readers can read a long list of standard OBD2 codes, many manufacturers add codes specific to their vehicle that a simple code reader might not be able to see. Scan tools can access not only sensors and engine controls, including automatic transmissions, anti-lock braking systems, and more.
The professional scan engine can even manually turn systems on and off on command for diagnostic purposes. For example, a mechanic friend of mine was recently working on a Toyota Prius where the hybrid battery cooling fan was not working. Using its professional scan engine, it can command the fan to turn on, whether it is needed or not, for diagnostic purposes. Also, after turning on the fan, his scan tool tells him that the fan speed is 0 RPM, which means that even though the power is on, the fan is still not spinning. This helped him diagnose corroded fan wiring in this particular car.
How does the OBD2 scanner work?
The scanner plugs into your car’s OBD2 port (usually located under the driver’s side dash) and connects to the computer running your engine and other systems. This computer is called an ECU orECM (engine control module).
When the ignition is on, the car scanner can read and erase diagnostic trouble codes,reset check engine light, monitor real-time engine and sensor data, customize car features, and more.
Wired OBD2 Scanner (Handheld)
The wired or portable OBD2 scanner keeps all its functions in the scanner itself, which plugs directly into the car’s OBD2 port. This is how the OBD2 system was originally designed to work with large, expensive dealer diagnostic systems. It still works fine, but the scanner can only do what the manufacturer designed it to do. They usually cannot be upgraded with new software to expand functionality.
Professional scanners that mechanics use often connect to your car by wire. Pretty much anything OBD2 will allow them to do. They can cost thousands of dollars which is out of reach for family lovers. That’s why a store might charge a diagnostic fee of $100 just for plugging in their scan engine. They are trying to recoup their big investment in this instrument.
However, there are a few exceptions. Volkswagen, for example, has a system they call VAG-COM. It uses the standard OBD2 interface, but adds many additional sensors and features to the base OBD2 system. These dealerships are usually only available to dealerships, but a serious Volkswagen or Audi owner can purchase or build a special VAG-COM cable to connect to a Windows PC and run a named program.VCDSto access all these additional exclusive features. Home lovers can use VCDS to read proprietary trouble codes, change door lock behavior, new key codes to work with cars, and more.
Some companies regulate, likeFit Cobb, which provides a wired device that not only reads and clears OBD2 codes, but also contains a variety of performance software for your engine. Although they work best when combined with an upgraded intake, exhaust and other modifications, the performance of my Subaru WRX improved dramatically with upgraded tuning and the intake and exhaust kit. original exhaust. New tunes, from Cobb Tuning or independent tuning shops, can be uploaded to the Accessport from your computer and then programmed into your car.
Wireless OBD2 Scanner
The wireless scanner uses Bluetooth or WiFi to connect to your Android or iOS device. They allow you to run a host of applications that allow you to do more than a basic scanner. For example,FIXD app and scannerworking together to not only track trouble codes, but also provide repair information, track maintenance schedules, and predict future issues with your vehicle. Other apps let you change certain features of your car, such as how long the interior lights stay on after the door is closed or the siren sounds when you use the remote lock.
When it comes to home use, a cordless scanner and an app on your phone is often the best bet, especially since you probably already have a smartphone.
How to use OBD2 scanner?
All 1996 or newer scooters, as well as 2008 and newer diesel vehicles, have an OBD2 port located somewhere under the dash near the steering wheel. You can useFIXD compatibility test.to find out if your vehicle is compatible with an OBD2 scanner such as FIXD. Then use FIXDOBD2 port search.to search for the exact location of your particular vehicle.
Plug the FIXD OBD2 scanner into your car’s OBD2 port, usually located on the driver’s side under the dashboard.
Plug your scanner into this port, then start your engine. The wired OBD2 scanner will automatically turn on and start communicating with your car. For wireless scanners, you will need an app for your iPhone or Android to pair with the scanner. An app like FIXD handles this process for you without too much work. Other apps may require you to manually connect your phone to the scanner’s Bluetooth or WiFi connection.
How to Connect OBD2 Scanner to Android
Android users must use Bluetooth wireless scanner. Once configured, it automatically connects and facilitates communication between your applications and your car.
How to Connect OBD2 Scanner to iPhone
However, iPhone users often report that they cannot use Bluetooth scanners with their devices. The common workaround for them is to use a scanner that uses WiFi instead of Bluetooth. You will need to manually connect to the scanner’s Wi-Fi network. This also means that you won’t be able to connect to your home Wi-Fi network while connected to your car. An exception to this isFIXD app and scanner, works with Bluetooth and iPhone without any difficulty.
Once connected, the wired scanner or wireless app will display a menu of options for you to read codes, erase codes, and perform other functions depending on the device or device. app you are using.
What should I look for when choosing an OBD2 scanner?
The answer to this question depends on how you plan to use your scanner. Ask yourself these questions to make a decision.
What information do you want?
A simple scanner and $20 app won’t give professional mechanics the tools or information they need. Similarly, a professional scan tool will be too expensive for the average driver, while providing many features that you really don’t need.
Average and DIY drivers pretty much just need a device that can read and erase trouble codes. Something that lets you see live data can also be useful for diagnostics, like determining if an oxygen sensor is good or bad. The FIXD scanner and app is a great solution for everyday drivers who want reliable information about what’s wrong with their vehicle and what they should do about it.
Maybe you’re a “power user” who wants more. In the past, I’ve used an app to set up a virtual “dashboard” to track dates that displayed my oil pressure and temperature data on screen in real time. These are two important parameters to monitor during constant hard driving to make sure you don’t overheat or run out of oil, but most car dashboards don’t include these gauges. I was able to add them with an inexpensive cordless scanner and a third-party app to display that data while I did the laps on the track.
Maybe you want to customize the car itself. A tool like Cobb Accessport is ideal for this, as well as standard OBD2 diagnostics, if Cobb creates a model for your particular vehicle. If comfort and convenience is all you care about, there are apps for that too. Carly is a tool specifically designed to customize car features, such as how long the interior lights stay on after the door is closed, or whether your car beeps when you use the magnetic lock. If you are a VW or Audi driver, consider usingVCDSWindows software to access unique Volkswagen features.
BAFX (requires 3rd party OBD2 app)
ELM327 (requires 3rd party OBD2 app)
Advanced diagnostics and maintenance tracking
FIXD sensor and OBD2 app.
Customize your car
VCDS (VW and Audi only)
Cobb Access Port
How much do you want to spend?
There are many affordable and quality productsOBD2 Scanner Under $100for everyday drivers. The cheapest OBD2 scanner solution is a simple ELM327 wireless scanner and a third-party app. You can buy both for less than $20 combined. You will need to configure these devices to work together and connect to your car, which can sometimes be a bit of a hassle. But if you’re tech-savvy, it’s an effective and inexpensive way to read and reset your car’s trouble codes.
For a few extra bucks – $59 to be exact -FIXD OBD2 Scanner and Appis an extremely easy to use all-in-one solution. Just plug in the scanner, install the free app, follow the instructions and it should work. Not only does it explain what the trouble codes mean in plain language, but it also uses the data itself to help you properly maintain your vehicle and avoid future problems.
professional car scanner
Other types of code readers include tuners like Cobb Accessport. It will read and reset trouble codes, but its main purpose is to tune your car for better performance. The model I use to tune my Subaru WRX is currently $675. However, keep in mind that what you’re really paying for is Cobb’s custom engine tuning software and ways to easily install it in your car, rather than just a code reader.
Professional scan tools are by far the most powerful devices available, but also too expensive for the average DIYer. thePhotoshoot of Zeus, for example, provides smart diagnostics and almost everything a professional mechanic needs. It also costs $11,695, higher than many used cars. When a professional uses it on a daily basis, such a tool will more than pay for itself. However, unless you are a professional, such a tool will not be worth the big investment.
Will the OBD2 scanner fix my car?
No. It’s called a scanner because it will only scan data from your car’s computer. It will not fix the problems it detects for you. It removes these codes and allows you toreset check engine light, but it is not the same as fixing the problems causing the device to turn on. If you don’t fix the problem that caused the light to turn on in the first place, the light will not turn on again until the car’s computer detects that the light is still there.
Although the scanner won’t fix your car on its own, it’s a useful diagnostic tool that will help you or your mechanic find out exactly what’s wrong with your car and fix it smartly, instead of just throwing coins at the problem, which can be expensive.
What is the best OBD2 scanner?
Every driver is different and which OBD2 scanner is best for you really depends on your needs. To find the features that are right for you, check out our list of10 Best OBD2 Scanners.
Although we may be a bit biased, for casual drivers and car enthusiasts,FIXD OBD2 scanner.both powerful and extremely easy to use. Just plug in the scanner, install the free app, follow the instructions and it should work. Viewing data in the free FIXD app is much more user-friendly than other scanning tools. It includes a mix of textual and visual data, including charts and graphs, making it easy to understand what’s going on inside your vehicle.
It not only reads most engine codes, but also translates them into plain English so everyone can understand what they mean. If you encounter trouble codes, FIXD provides you with a list of possible fixes and detailed linksOBD2 Code DescriptionandDIY videoto help you solve simple problems yourself.
However, FIXD is more than just annoying code. It also has automatic service alerts so you never forget to change the oil or filter. Multi-vehicle health monitoring allows you to connect multiple FIXD sensors to each vehicle you own and monitor their health in real time from your smartphone.
Best of all, it’s affordable enough for anyone to buy and easy enough for everyone to understand and take better care of their car.
The OBD2 scanners available today are far more capable than their initial limited professional use. Now anyone with a smartphone can access as much data as a shop with a much more affordable scanner. tools likeFIXD OBD2 scanner.not only reads diagnostic data, but also translates technical codes and jargon into plain English that anyone can understand and displays data in real time. Personalization options ranging from turning on interior lights to increasing engine power are made possible through what was previously just a diagnostic port. Sometimes technology really makes our lives easier.
Restore the days of autocross and track enthusiasts. Once transformed a VW Jetta into a van. Living in a van on the river. Dream car: 2001 Subaru WRC rally car.
Popular questions about what is a obd2 scanner
what is a obd2 scanner?
An OBD2 scanner is a small pocket-sized device. It can be plugged into almost every modern vehicle’s OBD port to get valuable information and real-time data about vehicle systems. A wireless scanner can connect to your cellphone through Bluetooth, and let you access your car’s data through a mobile app.
What can an OBD tell you?
What problems does the OBD system detect?
Emissions Control Systems.
Vehicle/Speed Idling Controls.
Others related to vehicle body & chassis etc such as Seat-belt, Airbags etc.
What is an OBD2 scanner used for?
An OBD2 scanner is a diagnostic tool that connects to your car via the Diagnostic Link Connector. This is done through a wired connection, Bluetooth, or WiFi, allowing you to scan every diagnostic trouble code generated by your car’s computer.
Do OBD2 scanners work on all cars?
Most OBD2 scanners and car code readers do not work on all cars. If you are looking for an OBD2 scanner or car code reader, you should check if it works with your particular make and model before buying it.
How do I scan my car with OBD2?
Plug the standard OBD2 connector into the vehicle’s port located under the driver’s side of the dashboard. Turn on the car to power the scan tool or code reader. If necessary, enter any vehicle-specific information requested. Many tools will ask for the Vehicle Identification Number (VIN).
Are OBD scanners worth it?
No it is not worth the cost. If you live in the states almost all major auto parts chains (Advance Auto, Autozone, etc) will do a check or even loan you the tool for free. Unless you’re checking codes daily, it may be cost prohibitive. The error codes produced by OBD2 are rather generic.
What is the difference between an OBD reader and scanner?
A code reader is a simplified version of a scan tool, but it’s only capable of performing basic scans of trouble codes. A scan tool can read and clear trouble codes, and it may also provide advanced data reading and playback features, knowledge bases, diagnostic procedures, and built-in testing equipment.
What is the difference between OBD and OBD2?
OBD is the abbreviation for on-board diagnostics.OBD2 refers to the second generation of the onboard diagnostic system. OBD or onboard diagnostics is the system in a car that controls and monitors all the important control devices, offering data access with the appropriate hardware and software.
What cars work with OBD2?
All cars and light trucks built and sold in the United States after January 1, 1996 were required to be OBD II equipped. In general, this means all 1996 model year cars and light trucks are compliant, even if built in late 1995.
Does car have to be running to check codes?
Do You Have To Turn The Vehicle To The Run Position To Check For Engine Codes? In order to connect and read codes, your engine does not need to run, but the ignition must be in the ‘Running’ position, so that the engine controller is fully powered.
Does my car have OBD1 or OBD2?
The standard OBD2 interface is a 16-pin connector. OBD2 interfaces are the same, so if the interface has 16-pin connector, so your car is OBD2. If it looks different, your car is OBD1.
Can you leave OBD2 plugged in while driving?
It’s completely safe to leave an OBD2 scanner tool plugged in while driving. In fact, it’s important to have your car running while you diagnose an engine code to avoid damaging the scanning software.
Does OBD2 drain battery?
So a poorly designed OBD device, when left plugged into the OBD port, might completely drain your battery. Worse still, if a device is not carefully designed, it can turn on your ECU even while the car is not running, draining your battery even faster.
Which OBD scanner is best?
The best OBD-II scanners you can buy today
Innova 6100P. Helps make an amateur mechanic feel more like a professional. …
Topdon ArtiDiag500. The best sub-$200 OBD-II scanner on the market. …
BlueDriver Pro Scan Tool. …
Bosch OBD 1300. …
Foxwell NT614 Elite. …
ThinkCar ThinkDiag TKD01. …
Ancel BD310. …
Autel AutoLink AL539.
Can OBD2 Scanner clear codes?
The OBD2 scanner can be used to troubleshoot automotive service codes, as well as to clear the codes. There are several reasons why you’d want to clear a system code from a vehicle.
With car computers doing so much heavy lifting these days, knowing how to use a hand-held scanning tool to communicate with it is important. Popular Mechanics associate auto editor Ben Wojdyla explains:
Who says you can’t work on your own car anymore? Follow Popular Mechanics associate auto editor Ben Wojdyla as he leads viewers, step by step, through repairs, upgrades, and troubleshooting tips. Got car questions? Email Ben, and he may answer them on the show.
The BlueDriver is the best OBD2 scanner. See it on Amazon:
0:56 – What is OBD
1:59 – Smartphone/bluetooth scanners
3:19 – How did we test
4:20 – Bluedriver
6:01 – Launch v+
7:09 – Carista
Not everyone should work on their own car, but if you want to take a peek behind the dashboard an OBD2 scanner can help you find out just how bad a problem is before you pull out the wrenches.
We spent a month testing engine, braking and airbag systems with 13 scanners. We looked for a scanner that can give information in a usable format and help you get to the bottom of what’s making your car unhappy.
We focused on scanners with essential functions and capped our budget at $100 per scanner, which eliminates the upper tier of scan tools with built-in oscilloscopes and security system programming. However, we still found some impressive features that will help you complete a fix without investing in features most car owners won’t ever need.
Our picks for the best OBD2 scanners:
The best overall: Lemur – BlueDriver
Best wired scanner: Launch – CReader V+
Notable mention for mods and hacks: Carista
When purchasing an OBD scanner, the top features to consider are:
• Wired scanners vs smartphone adapters
• Scanning generic engine lights vs extended modes like ABS
• Real-time graphing options
• Connection to a database of “verified” fixes for common problems
After testing, we found that the BlueDriver is the best OBD-II scanner. Check out the features here:
The ThinkOBD 100 is the perfect scan tool for DIY mechanics and car owners who are looking for an easy-to-use tool to verify repairs and/or to understand more about their vehicle’s overall health and solve basic vehicle maintenance quickly, at the comfort of their own garage. We got our hands on one, follow along to see what we think of it!
Know which one is right for you by reading our article here:
Influencers, Resellers and Installers – Partner with Us!
[ EXCLUSIVE MONTHLY CONTEST ]
Enter our monthly Dash Cam video contest for a chance to win a $150 credit to spend on our site \u0026 to be featured on our YouTube Channel! Send in your video submissions to [email protected] or directly at the link below.
At BlackboxMyCar, we’re all about your driving experience. We want you to have a great one, and that’s why we sell products that give you that sense of adventure that you want. We are passionate about what we do. Every customer is important and unique – we know they always expect the very best from us. If we’re not providing top quality products or the most in-depth information available, then we’re not doing our job. It’s BlackboxMyCar’s utmost duty to ensure that our customers are making informed decisions, which not only include offering the guaranteed best prices, but also fantastic warranties and the highest tier of pre- and post-sale customer service.